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Thyroid Related Research Articles and Papers

by Thyroid UK Advisors
Dr. Johannes W. Dietrich, Dr John Midgley,
Professor Dr Rudolf Hoërmann, Peter Warmingham

For information on Thyroid UK advisors, please go here


The Diagnosis and Treatment of Hypothyroidism: A Patient‟s Perspective

Authors: Mel Rowe, Rudolf Hoermann, Peter Warmingham

Last Updated 27 August 2017

The authors have teamed up in an attempt to bring the patient and doctor perspective together.

Click here to download the PDF



Response to Finnish statements about the care of hypothyroidism

Professor, MD, PhD, endocrinologist Rudolf Hoermann has retired from the Lüdenscheid university hospital (University of Bonn), where he was head of the departments of general medicine, gastroenterology and endocrinology. He has authored and co-authored more than a hundred articles of reviews in international medical journals.
Professor Hoermann has kindly commented on some statements from Finnish endocrinologists.

Click here to download the PDF


Symptomatic Relief is Related to Serum Free Triiodothyronine Concentrations during Follow-up in Levothyroxine-Treated Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

February 2018 Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Larisch R, Midgley JEM, Dietrich JW, Hoermann R.


Recent Advances in Thyroid Hormone Regulation: Toward a New Paradigm for Optimal Diagnosis and Treatment

December 2017 Frontiers in Endocrinology 8
DOI 10.3389/fendo.2017.00364
Hoermann R, Midgley JEM, Larisch R, Dietrich JW.



Advances in applied homeostatic modelling of the relationship between thyrotropin and free thyroxine

November 2017  PLoS ONE 12(11):e0187232
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0187232
Hoermann R, Midgley JEM, Larisch R, Dietrich JW, Dietrich C.


Thyroid Allostasis–Adaptive Responses of Thyrotropic Feedback Control to Conditions of Strain, Stress, and Developmental Programming

July 2017 Frontiers in Endocrinology 8:163
DOI 10.3389/fendo.2017.00163
Chatzisomaris A, Hoermann R, Midgley JEM, Hering S, Urban A, Dietrich B, Abood A, Klein HH, Dietrich JW.


Dual control of pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone secretion by thyroxine and triiodothyronine in athyreotic patients

July 2017 Therapeutic advances in endocrinology and metabolism 8(6):83-95 DOI 10.1177/2042018817716401
Hoermann R, Midgley JEM, Dietrich JW, Larisch R.


Relational Stability in the Expression of Normality, Variation, and Control of Thyroid Function 

November 2016  Frontiers in Endocrinology 7(4)
DOI 10.3389/fendo.2016.00142
Hoermann R, Midgley JEM, Larisch R, Dietrich JW.


 Calculated Parameters of Thyroid Homeostasis: Emerging Tools for Differential Diagnosis and Clinical Research

June 2016 Frontiers in Endocrinology 7(3)
DOI 10.3389/fendo.2016.00057
Dietrich JW,  Landgraf-Mende G, Wiora E, Chatzitomaris A, Klein HH,  Midgley JEM, Hoermann R.


Derivation of a Multivariate Reference Range for Pituitary Thyrotropin and Thyroid Hormones: Diagnostic Efficiency Compared to Conventional Single Reference Method

March 2016 European Journal of Endocrinology 174(6)
DOI 10.1530/EJE-16-0031


An article in The Lancet

Of rats and men: thyroid homeostasis in rodents and human beings

Johannes W Dietrichemail, John E M Midgley, Rolf Larisch, Rudolf Hoermann
Volume 3, No. 12, p932–933, December 2015

In their Comment in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology,1 Elizabeth McAninch and Antonio Bianco1 raise the important issue of the variable effectiveness of levothyroxine (LT4) monotherapy for hypothyroidism. Residual hypothyroid symptoms in 12% of patients on LT4 treatment in the USA, the European Union, and China translates to more than 13 million people with hypothyroidism who have reduced quality of life, despite normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. The reason for these residual symptoms in this enigmatic group of participants is still unknown.

The full text is available to read here:


Variation in the Biochemical Response to L-Thyroxine Therapy and Relationship with Peripheral Thyroid Hormone Conversion

John E M Midgley, Rolf Larisch, Johannes W Dietrich and Rudolf Hoermann

Accepted Preprint first posted online on 11 August 2015

Abstract: www.endocrineconnections.com/content/early/2015/08/11/EC-15-0056

Click here to download the full text PDF


The role of thyroid hormones in anxiety and depression

R. Larisch1, S. Schulte1, G. Hildenbrand2, R. Hörmann

Click here to download this as a PDF


Integration of Peripheral and Glandular Regulation of Triiodothyronine Production by Thyrotropin in Untreated and Thyroxine-Treated Subjects.

Hoermann R, Midgley JE, Larisch R, Dietrich JW.
Horm Metab Res. 2015 Mar 6. [Epub]



Homeostatic equilibria between free thyroid hormones and pituitary thyrotropin are modulated by various influences including age, body mass index and treatment.

Hoermann R, Midgley JE, Giacobino A, Eckl WA, Wahl HG, Dietrich JW, Larisch R.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2014 Dec;81(6):907-15. doi: 10.1111/cen.12527. Epub 2014 Jul 7.



Is pituitary TSH an adequate measure of thyroid hormone-controlled homoeostasis during thyroxine treatment?

Hoermann R, Midgley JE, Larisch R, Dietrich JW.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2013 Jan 17;168(2):271-80. doi: 10.1530/EJE-12-0819. Print 2013 Feb.



Reference range for thyrotropin. Post hoc assessment.

Larisch R, Giacobino A, Eckl W, Wahl HG, Midgley JE, Hoermann R.
Nuklearmedizin. 2015 Jan 8;54(1). [Epub]



TSH Measurement and Its Implications for Personalised Clinical Decision-Making.

Hoermann R, Midgley JE.
J Thyroid Res. 2012;2012:438037. doi: 10.1155/2012/438037. Epub 2012 Dec 9.



Complex relationship between free thyroxine and TSH in the regulation of thyroid function.

Hoermann R, Eckl W, Hoermann C, Larisch R.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2010 Jun;162(6):1123-9. doi: 10.1530/EJE-10-0106. Epub 2010 Mar 18.



Do thyroid-stimulating hormone, body weight, or body mass index serve as adequate markers to guide levothyroxine dose titration?

Dietrich JW, Leow MK, Goede SL, Midgley JE, Landgrafe G, Hoermann R.
J Am Coll Surg. 2013 Oct;217(4):752-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2013.06.008.

Article and response: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/256928352


Physiological states and functional relation between thyrotropin and free thyroxine in thyroid health and disease: in vivo and in silico data suggest a hierarchical model.

Midgley JE, Hoermann R, Larisch R, Dietrich JW.
J Clin Pathol. 2013 Apr;66(4):335-42. doi: 10.1136/jclinpath-2012-201213. Epub 2013 Feb 19


Measuring thyroid peroxidase antibodies on the day nulliparous women present for management of miscarriage: a descriptive cohort study.

Grossmann M, Hoermann R, Francis C, Hamilton EJ, Tint A, Kaitu'u-Lino T, Kuswanto K, Lappas M, Sikaris K, Zajac JD, Permezel M, Tong S.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013 May 14;11:40. doi: 10.1186/1477-7827-11-40.



Measurement of total rather than free thyroxine in pregnancy: the diagnostic implications.

Midgley JE, Hoermann R.
Thyroid. 2013 Mar;23(3):259-61. doi: 10.1089/thy.2012.0469. Review.


Impact of smoking on the course of Graves' disease after withdrawal of antithyroid drugs.

Quadbeck B, Roggenbuck U, Janssen OE, Hahn S, Mann K, Hoermann R; Basedow Study Group.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2006 Sep;114(8):406-11.



"All that glisters is not gold": Ultrafiltration and free thyroxine measurement With apologies to W Shakespeare.

Midgley JE.
Clin Biochem. 2011 Feb;44(2-3):151-3. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2010.11.001. Epub 2010 Nov 11



Hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback control: implications of mathematical modeling and consequences for thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) reference ranges.

Goede SL, Leow MK, Smit JW, Klein HH, Dietrich JW.
Bull Math Biol. 2014 Jun;76(6):1270-87. doi: 10.1007/s11538-014-9955-5. Epub 2014 May 1.



A novel minimal mathematical model of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis validated for individualized clinical applications.

Goede SL, Leow MK, Smit JW, Dietrich JW.
Math Biosci. 2014 Mar;249:1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.mbs.2014.01.001. Epub 2014 Jan 28.



TSH and Thyrotropic Agonists: Key Actors in Thyroid Homeostasis.

Dietrich JW, Landgrafe G, Fotiadou EH.
J Thyroid Res. 2012;2012:351864. doi: 10.1155/2012/351864. Epub 2012 Dec 30.



Thyroxine in goiter, H. pylori infection, and gastritis.

Dietrich JW, Boehm BO.
N Engl J Med. 2006 Sep 14;355(11):1177; author reply 1177.

Letter and response:  http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMc061447


Selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis decreases thyroid peroxidase antibodies concentrations.

Gärtner R, Gasnier BC, Dietrich JW, Krebs B, Angstwurm MW.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Apr;87(4):1687-91.



The parathyroid as a target for radiation damage.

Boehm BO, Rosinger S, Belyi D, Dietrich JW.
N Engl J Med. 2011 Aug 18;365(7):676-8. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1104982.